Skip to main content

Full text of "World flight for Christ"

#*• 



World Flight 

FOR 

Christ 



DAVID H. GALLAGHER 



WORLD FLIGHT 

FOR 

CHRIST 



DAVID H. GALLAGHER 




THE BOARD OF OVERSEAS MISSIONS 

THE UNITED CHURCH OF CANADA 

1948 



Copyright 1948 

THE BOARD OF OVERSEAS MISSIONS 

The United Church of Canada 

299 Queen St. West, Toronto, Ontario 



PRINTED AND BOUND BY 

THE UNITED CHURCH PUBLISHING HOUSE 

TORONTO 



DEDICATED 

TO THE 

CAUSE OF CHRIST 
OVERSEAS 

With gratitude to deputation members whose 

reports have been drawn upon in 

preparing this booklet. 



Contents 



PAGE 

INTRODUCTION . vii 

INDIA 1 

Evangelistic 2 

Educational 4 

Medical 5 

SOUTH CHINA ..... 8 

Evangelistic 8 

Educational 9 

Medical 10 

WEST CHINA 11 

Evancelistic 11 

Educational 15 

Medical 20 

NORTH HONAN 26 

Evangelistic . . . . . 27 

Educational 27 

Medical 28 

KOREA 29 

Evangelistic 30 

Educational 32 

Medical 33 

JAPAN 33 

Evangelistic 36 

Educational 41 

CONCLUSION 47 

v 



INTRODUCTION 

The missionary leaders in The United Church of 
Canada have been deeply concerned about the post-war 
problems faced by our representatives in other lands. 
The fields in Asia presented several questions to the 
Church. What effect has independence in India had 
upon our work? Is it possible to continue Christian 
service amid the civil strife of China? When shall we 
be permitted to re-enter our field north of the 38th 
parallel in Korea? Is it true that present-day Japan 
offers unlimited opportunity for Christian workers? In 
short, what countries, and what phases of our pro- 
gramme should have priority at this time? 

In an endeavour to secure a first-hand survey of our 
work, and to seek light on the above questions, the 
Board of Overseas Missions, with the co-operation of 
the Dominion Board of the Woman's Missionary 
Society, sent a deputation to visit our 6 fields in Asia. 
The party included Mrs. Hugh D. Taylor, Overseas 
Secretary of the W.M.S., Dr. John S. Astbury, an emi- 
nent educationist of Montreal, Dr. James Y. Ferguson, 
for many years chief surgeon at the East General 
Hospital in Toronto, and myself as Associate Secretary 
of the Board of Overseas Missions. 

The mission assigned to us was not an easy one, but 
it was a rare privilege to study the cause of Christ and 
His Church beyond the seas. The trip involved 40,000 
miles of travel, over 30,000 being by air. Conveyances 
other than planes, included trains, buses, motor-cars, 
river-boats, rickshaws, pole-chairs, and ox-cart, in keep- 

vii 



ing with oriental means of transportation. Such travel 
is not a holiday— in fact some of these conveyances tend 
to use the passengers as shock-absorbers. Add to this 
the daily round of meetings, public addresses, gather- 
ing information and writing reports, and you will 
realize that the deputation was kept busy. En route 
around the world, flying eastward over the Atlantic, 
and returning across the Pacific, we touched a dozen 
different countries, landed at some thirty airports, and 
had the privilege of spending 2 months in India, '3 
months in China, and a month in Korea and Japan. 
Incidents of special interest included an unscheduled 
stop at Damascus where we naturally thought of Paul's 
conversion, the sight of the famous Taj Mahal at Agra; 
a brief visit to Macao where we saw the grave of Robert 
Morrison, the first modern missionary to China, and 
gazed upon the ruined cathedral surmounted by the 
Cross which caused Bowring to write his hymn, "In the 
cross of Christ I glory, towering o'er the wrecks of 
time". Points of military interest included the Cana- 
dian cemetery at Hong Kong, and the scenes of action 
at Wake Island and Pearl Harbour, as well as many 
bombed-out sections in China and Japan. But our 
chief interest was the helpful contacts with our mis- 
sionaries and their work. They are a valiant company, 
faithfully serving the Lord Jesus Christ. 



Vlll 



WORLD FLIGHT FOR CHRIST 



INDIA 



We arrived in India while the strife among religious 
groups was still raging. The new-found freedom which 
followed independence had run to license, resulting in 
rioting and killing. Some 40,000,000 people were 
seeking safety in new geographical areas. Destitute and 
diseased refugees were crowded into temporary camps 
where relief had to be provided. We carried with us 
300 pounds of medical supplies, a gift from Church 
World Service and the City of New York, to stem the 
tide of cholera. In one camp of 180,000 death claimed 
25 per day. Our doctors and nurses contributed to the 
relief of the suffering. Cities were overcrowded. Bombay 
was said to have a population of 2,500,000 with 1,000,000 
sleeping on the sidewalks. 

The late Mahatma Gandhi, whom we visited in 
Delhi, was using his influence to quell the disturbances, 
as were the governmental leaders of India and Pakistan. 
In conversation with Gandhi, we chatted about world 
affairs, the trouble in Europe, Palestine and the Far 
East, as well as the religious strife accompanying the 
partition of India. When asked about the future of 
Christian missions there, he said, "I should not be 
unduly concerned about the future; there is always 
room for good work". What a time to visit India, as 
she faced the added responsibilities of a new day. 

During our stay in this land of mystery, of extremes 
in wealth and poverty, of many strange religious beliefs, 
we realized the challenge to Christian people to provide 
the blessings of the Gospel, and benefit our Indian 



brethren by opening the door to the abundant life. 
This challenge is being accepted by our missionaries 
in the ministry of preaching, teaching and healing. 

The Evangelistic work is basic to the whole mis- 
sionary programme, and our staff is sadly depleted. At 
one time we were able to serve 12 central stations, but 
now only 7 are supplied by our Board. In several 
places the representatives of the Woman's Missionary 
Society are alone in their work. The Indian pastors 
and unordained Indian workers are giving leadership 
at many points, but still welcome the counsel and 
assistance of the missionaries. We were able to visit 
some 19 places, seeing the Church at work in city, 
village and countryside. A number of the larger con- 
gregations are self-supporting and others are moving 
toward that goal; but many are as yet unable to function 
without financial assistance. 

Splendid congregations greeted us at Ratlam, Indore, 
Mhow, Rasalpura, Dhar, Mandleshwar, Hat Piplia, 
Ujjain, Agar, Dewas, Kharua, Neemuch, Sitamau, 
Banswara, and at several rural villages. The dedication 
of the Smillie Memorial Chapel at Rasalpura was a 
worthy and impressive occasion. The dispensing of the 
sacrament of the Lord's Supper to a congregation of 
Bhils assembled under a banyan tree near the village 
of Jhonki will not soon be forgotten. The men and 
women were seated separately. And what a colourful 
congregation it was. The men with their long hair 
and ear-rings, with their turbans and dhotis, the women 
wearing brightly coloured saris, and bedecked with 
metal bands on arms and limbs as jewellery. The serv- 
ice was primitive to an extreme. The cups were made 
from leaves of the tree, fastened with thorns, but they 
did not leak. The Indian chappati, and native wine 
served as the elements. In spite of the simplicity, it 
was an impressive service; and we realized our oneness 
in -Christ Jesus our Lord. The privilege of baptising 



many new Christians is a cherished memory. Months 
of instruction are required before adult baptism or 
church membership, but adequate leadership was lack- 
ing for many who became Christian in the group move- 
ment among the Bhils. Some bear good witness to the 
saving grace of Christ, while others require further 
shepherding. More workers are needed. 

Statistics are not always interesting, but let us point 
out that our Church in Central India is organized in 
two councils or presbyteries, which form part of the 
"United Church of Northern India". The Ratlam 
Council contains 28 churches, 3 being self-supporting, 
with 10,000 communicants, 17,000 baptized Christians, 
and hundreds of "learners" under instruction. The 
non-communicants include 8,600 adults and 6,400 
children who have been baptized and 2,400 non-baptized 
adherents. The total Christian community numbers 
nearly 20,000. There are 21 Sunday Schools with about 
500 pupils. About 50 adults and 100 children are 
baptized and the Church receives some 250 new 
members in a year. 

The Malwa Council has 26 churches of which 5 
are self-supporting, with 2,254 communicants. Baptized 
non-communicants number 4,784 of whom 2,164 are 
children. Non-baptized adherents number 673. The 
total Christian community is 7,700. The past year 
witnessed 256 baptisms, 223 being children. There are 
34 Sunday Schools with over 1,300 pupils. About 100 
new members are added to the Church each year. 

The 2 councils, which may shortly be amalgamated, 
provide a challenge and an opportunity to win hundreds 
of persons for Christ each year. A larger staff would 
mean a greater harvest. The General Assembly was 
first called to meet in the Punjab, but the rioting in 
that area necessitated a change to Allahabad. The 
Moderator is the Rev. Augustine Ralla Ram. It was 
my privilege to serve as guest preacher, and to sit in at 

3 



a number of commission groups concerning the reorgan- 
ization of the Church, the integration of Church and 
Mission, and the special effort in evangelism. The 
indigenous church in India is very much alive, and the 
leadership provided by the Indian pastors and laymen 
is worthy of a much older church. It was evident in 
the discussions at the General Assembly that the results 
obtained in our mission area are appreciated by the 
Indian Church leaders. 

The Indian Church has now taken over responsi- 
bility for the evangelistic work on this field. But the 
missionaries are still needed, and we must co-operate 
in the building of a strong indigenous Church. 

The Educational programme of our mission in 
Central India, includes the Vocational High School for 
boys at Rasalpura, the Indore Christian College and 
Union Theological Seminary in Indore. Primary 
Schools and High School for Girls are supported by 
the Woman's Missionary Society. 

The Vocational High School has a trade school 
with 30 boys learning carpentry, masonry, printing, 
tailoring, welding or machine work. There are 170 
boys in academic courses to Grade 10. An Indian 
principal has been secured for Rasalpura, and the 
influence of this school should grow with the years. 
The higher grades of High School are lacking, and this 
gap in our educational system should be filled by 
establishing a Boys' High School at Indore, leading up 
to our college courses. 

The Indore Christian College, with a missionary 
principal and an Indian vice-principal, has 457 students 
of whom 69 are women. A very small proportion of 
the student-body is Christian, partly because we do not 
provide the Boys' High School referred to above. The 
recent declaration by the State, announcing free educa- 
tion for women, may affect the present system of fees 
for their tuition. Other regulations, such as greater 



emphasis upon the study of Hindi, the number of 
Hindu students to be enrolled, may be anticipated. 
But it is certain that Christian schools and colleges 
must be of a high order if they are to continue in the 
new India. Institutions, capably staffed and well 
equipped, will continue to find a place of service. 

The Union Theological Seminary provides the 
necessary courses of study for candidates for the 
Christian ministry. The staff consists of a missionary 
principal, with Indian and other local assistants. Fifteen 
young men, together with wives of those who are 
married, have been enrolled in the past year. The 
practical side of the course includes preaching tours 
in the villages, proclaiming the Gospel to those who 
perhaps hear it for the first time. While in the Hat 
Piplia area, we met the students "on tour", living in a 
tent and cooking their own meals. The academic and 
the practical find place at this seminary. 

An additional course for evangelistic women workers 
might well be provided at the Union Theological 
Seminary. 

The various schools visited put on special pro- 
grammes for our benefit. These included recitals, 
dramas, Indian dances and displays of work. The able 
performers were a decided contrast to the many naked 
and illiterate children whom we saw tending crops or 
living in roadside camps. What a difference Christ 
makes. 

The educational work is important for as Dr. J. S. 
Astbury declares in his report, "It is through educated 
Christian Indians that Christianity is making its main 
impact on the political and national life of India 
today". 

Woodstock School at Mussoori, where children of 
missionaries attend, is supported by several churches, 
including The United Church of Canada. 

The Medical service is supported equally by the 



Woman's Missionary Society and the Board of Over- 
seas Missions. The ministry of healing is carried on in 
7 hospitals and several small dispensaries, with an all 
too-limited staff of missionary doctors and nurses. 

The hospital at Indore with 100 beds for women 
and children has a missionary woman doctor, 3 Indian 
women doctors, 4 graduate nurses, and 32 in training, 
with 11 in the midwifery course. Another missionary 
woman doctor, and a business manager for the hospital, 
are needed. A new building is to be added. 

Ratlam has a general hospital with 80 beds, and 
more in demand. The staff includes 2 missionary 
doctors, 1 a man, 2 Indian doctors, a missionary super- 
intendent of nursing, 3 compounders, a few graduate 
nurses and 21 in training. A larger residence for nurses 
is needed. Another surgeon would be kept busy. 

A general hospital at Banswara has 85 beds. The 
staff consists of a missionary woman doctor, an Indian 
doctor, a missionary nurse, 4 graduate nurses, 23 in 
training with 4 in the course for midwives. There is 
also a laboratory technician. The people of the com- 
munity are assisting in providing X-ray equipment. 

A 40-bed general hospital serves Hat Piplia. An 
Indian woman doctor, a missionary nurse, 4 graduate 
nurses, 4 aides, a male nurse, a male compounder and 
laboratory technician serve in this institution. While 
we were there, Mrs. Taylor dedicated "to the glory of 
God and the service of man" a new dispensary and out- 
patients' department. 

The Dhar hospital for women, under the direction 
of an Indian woman doctor, renders valuable service in 
that area. A new ward building is needed, and a car 
would make possible a larger work in the field of rural 
public health. At Dhar, we visited the leprosarium 
where treatment is provided for many who suffer from 
leprosy. A service of worship was held at this institu- 
tion. 

6 



The hospital at Mandleshwar needs additional 
equipment and better buildings. A new laboratory was 
built last year, but the 35 beds are located in several 
scattered buildings. An Indian woman doctor, and 
limited staff, endeavour to supply the needs of this 
area. 

The Neemuch hospital consists of an excellent 
stone building, with 45 beds for women, and a well- 
equipped operating room. An Indian woman doctor, 
an Indian superintendent of nurses, and a few in train- 
ing constitute the staff. This hospital is not used to 
capacity. A Babies' Home has been maintained at this 
point during the past 25 years. We attended the silver 
jubilee. The orphaned or unwanted babies thus saved 
for a Christian way of life often become leaders in the 
Church. We chatted with many adults who had bene- 
fited by this home. An all too prevalent custom in 
the East is the use of opium to "dope" the little ones 
to keep them from crying. We saw one such "opium 
baby" that had been rescued, and was later thriving 
under Christian care. 

In addition to the hospitals visited, we called at a 
few of the rural dispensaries, so helpful to the people 
in the areas of Sitamau, Ujjain, and Kharua. 

The Vellore Medical College, near Madras, is provid- 
ing Indian doctors and nurses for the future India. We 
share in the work of this College. 

The influence of Christianity among non-Christian 
people is well illustrated by our experience in a Hindu 
temple. We were returning from the Narbudda River 
to Mandleshwar in company with one of our mission- 
aries of that station. As we were passing the temple, 
the evening chimes were ringing. We suggested that 
we should like to observe the ritualistic routine. Taking 
off our shoes we entered the sanctuary. The aged priest 
completed his service though no congregation was 
present. He then welcomed us and explained the 



significance of various idols, the altar where his followers 
pledged their loyalty, and the representations of the 
incarnations of Vishnu in keeping with Hindu teaching. 
As we were about to don our shoes to depart, his 
kindness prompted the remark, "You have been very 
gracious toward us, knowing us to be Christians. Have 
you any reason for such kindness?" "Ah yes," he said, 
"you see my wife's life was saved in your hospital. " The 
spirit of Jesus Christ, portrayed by our missionaries, 
goes far beyond the Christian fold. 

Who can measure the value of our ministry of heal- 
ing among the suffering of India? Not only does it 
provide health to many, but it opens the door for the 
Gospel of Jesus Christ. It is in His name we have served 
the people of Central India since 1875. 



SOUTH CHINA 

Our mission in South China was begun in 1902 at the 
behest of Chinese Christians in Canada, who desired 
their relatives and friends in China to have the benefit 
of the Gospel. The work was seriously disrupted during 
the Japanese war, and our properties were badly dam- 
aged by the bombing. They have since been repaired, 
and the cause of Christ goes forward in encouraging 
fashion. 

The Evangelistic work— the Church—is a part of the 
Kwangtung Synod of the "Church of Christ in China ,, , 
and furnishes a splendid example of the integration 
of church and mission, the goal toward which we move 
in our several fields. It was in 1925 that the first synod 
was formed in this area, and the Church of Christ in 
China was launched with seven missions participating. 

The mission opened 25 chapels, 6 of which were 
begun by the American Congregational Board. Before 
the war 4 were self-supporting, but augmentation has 

a 



been more needed in re-establishing the work. Our 
boards, Woman's Missionary Society and the Board of 
Overseas Missions, grant $3,000 each to the Synod for 
church aid. The control by Synod, helps to maintain 
uniform salaries in the various presbyteries. Our mis- 
sion has 4,000 members, the neighbouring presbytery 
has 10,000 and the Synod totals 50,000 Christians. 

Prior to the war each chapel had 1 man and 1 
woman giving leadership, though only 4 were ordained. 
Lacking the provision of pastors during the war years, 
leadership is now reduced to 1/3 the former number. 
About 100 members are added to the Church each 
year, and our one evangelistic missionary is a valued 
leader. 

The training of pastors rests largely with the Union 
Theological College, now on the campus of Lingnan 
University, Canton. I addressed the student body of 15, 
of whom 3 are women. We visited also the Chung Kei 
Bible Training School where women evangelistic workers 
receive their tuition. As rapidly as possible the Chinese 
Church is seeking to provide the necessary leaders. 

Our travel on several occasions was by means of 
Chinese junks or river-boats. Overcrowded, with primi- 
tive accommodation, these boats provided an unusual 
experience. At night some of the passengers, including 
our party, rented sleeping space on the wooden shelf- 
like bunks. Did I say sleeping space? It consisted of 
18 inches on boards without any mattress. But some 
of us actually slept most of the night. On one trip, the 
boat ahead of us was waylaid by pirates, and all pas- 
sengers were robbed. We were more fortunate. 

We visited the congregations at Shekkei, Canton, 
Sun Wai, Kongmoon, Pakkai and several rural chapels. 
Keen interest in Christ and His Church was evident at 
all these places. We are fortunate to have a part in 
tending this portion of the Master's vineyard. 

The Educational institutions under Christian 



auspices compare favourably with state schools that we 
visited. The Pui Sun School at Pakkai near Kongmoon 
is a branch of a larger school in Canton. It provides 
classes for primary children and for girls and boys in 
Middle School grades. The total enrolment is 400 of 
whom 66 are girls. Dormitory accommodation is pro- 
vided for 279. There are 70 teachers on the staff. 

The Church is interested in the Union Normal and 
Middle School at Canton which is under efficient 
management. One member of the staff is a Canadian, 
and the "Canadian Building'' is now used as a dormi- 
tory for girls of Senior Middle grades. This school has 
3 branches, 1 in Macao and 2 in Canton. It is the 
only private Normal School in the south and is noted 
for its fine record. The main school at Canton has 100 
Normal students, 550 in Middle School and 400 in the 
Primary Department. The New Zealand Presbyterians 
and the United Brethren, share with us in the support 
of this institution. 

The Shung Kei Bible Training School, and the 
Union Theological College, are mentioned above in 
connection with the church life and work. 

The Medical service in South China at one time 
included a part in the Christian Hospital in Canton, 
but now centres almost entirely in the hospital on our 
compound at Pakkai, the river port of Kongmoon. The 
hospital plant is in excellent condition. There are 120 
beds, 1 missionary doctor, 2 Chinese women doctors, 3 
missionary nurses, 7 Chinese nurses and 21 aides. The 
operating room and general equipment is good, for some 
of which we are indebted to the Chinese Relief Com- 
mittee. The addition of a surgeon to the staff would 
make possible a needed School of Nursing, and the 
extension of rural medical services throughout the area. 

Here as in other fields, the healing ministry in the 
name of Christ is greatly appreciated by the people of 
the community. 

10 



WEST CHINA 

Following a few days in Shanghai where we studied 
the work of the Church of Christ in China of which 
one of our missionaries is secretary, the Christian 
Literature Society, the National Christian Council, and 
the Associated Mission Treasury office, we flew to our 
field in Szechwan Province, West China. 

Established in 1892 our West China mission has 
now the largest staff of any of our overseas fields. We 
serve the central and eastern parts of Szechwan with its 
167,000 square miles. Of a population of 65,000,000, 
over 10,000,000 reside in our area. The temperature 
varies from 30° to 95°, but during the cloudy winter 
months, the unheated buildings are really cold. This 
land of plenty provides iron, salt, coal, sulphur, gas, 
copper and charcoal. Food consists of rice, meats, flour, 
sugar, tea, vegetables and fruits. Several irrigation 
systems aid agriculture. Clothing is of wool, cotton, 
silk, and fur; shoes are made from leather, bamboo, 
straw and grass. 

Travel by boat, bus and rickshaw is common, but 
pole-chairs and wheelbarrows are still in use. Sedan 
chairs are used for special occasions such as weddings. 
Our mission stations include Chengtu, Chungchow, 
Chungking, Jenshow, Kiating, Junghsien, Fowling, 
Luchow, Penghsien, and Tzeliutsing. Many rural 
chapels are associated with these larger centres. 

Chengtu is the capital of the Province, and the 
centre of the political, educational and social life. Here 
stands the West China Union University, supported by 
5 denominations, 1 of which is The United Church of 
Canada. 

The Evangelistic work in West China lacks leader- 
ship. In Chengtu we have 2 congregations totalling 350 
members, with Chinese leaders. A small group of 20 
members is also maintained. A congregation at the 

11 



university campus numbers 190. 6 out-stations have 
146 members. There are no missionaries in district 
work around Chengtu, and no full-time pastoral mis- 
sionaries within the city. The Overseas Board has a 
chaplain at the university, 1 minister teaching in the 
Theological College, and 2 in Press and Literature work. 
The Chengtu area has over 40 missionaries including 
wives under our Board, most of whom serve in the 
university. This district received 98 new members last 
year. 

Penghsien, 25 miles north, has 2 out-stations, and a 
total of 207 communicants, 22 of whom joined in the 
past year. No missionary is available, and the Church 
depends on a few Chinese evangelistic workers. 

Jenshow, with its 6 outpoints, has 4 Chinese workers 
serving 174 communicants of whom 15 are new. 

Kiating has 4 missionaries, 2 under our Board, and 
5 Chinese workers serving 274 communicants of whom 
44 are in 4 rural points. We shared with large con- 
gregations, Sunday School and young people's groups 
at Kiating. Additional accommodation is needed. 

Junghsien has a fine compound with church, resi- 
dences, schools and memorial chapel. The congrega- 
tion has 200 members and 150 learners. Among the 90 
new members are 50 students of the school whose homes 
are elsewhere. There is a good Sunday School and 
young people's society. The East Gate Sunday School 
and prayer meeting are well attended. 12 rural chapels 
have additional membership of 190 and many learners. 
The present staff in the Junghsien area includes 4 mis- 
sionaries, 2 supported by our Board, and 10 Chinese 
evangelistic workers. 

Tzeliutsing is the centre of the salt industry. The 
visit to the wells with their primitive forms of machinery 
and much labour by men and animals was most interest- 
ing. Miles of bamboo pipe distribute the brine to the 
evaporation pans. This important city has 8 mission- 

12 



aries of whom 3 are Overseas Missions Board evangelistic 
workers, and 9 Chinese workers. The city has a con- 
gregation of 165 members, and 235 additional members 
are scattered among 8 rural chapels. Team visitation 
of the out-stations should be revived to prevent neglected 
Christians from drifting beyond the fellowship. At 
one time there were 14 rural points in this area, but 
some have been lost through lack of both missionary 
and Chinese leadership. 

Luchow is an important city at the junction of the 
Lu and Yangtse Rivers, famous for its sugar, pottery, 
umbrellas, ropes, matches, and boat-building. The 
congregation has 60 members with 15 additions per 
year. Here I addressed the presbytery and the con- 
gregation. Luchow district, with 5 outpoints, has 242 
members of whom 40 are new. Leadership is provided 
by 8 Chinese evangelistic workers, and a missionary from 
Tzeliutsing visits occasionally. The presbytery has but 
1 ordained pastor, 3 lay preachers, and 4 women 
evangelists. Such lack of leaders is typical of many 
rural districts. 

Chungking has 2 full time evangelistic missionaries 
of our Board, a part time hospital chaplain, and a 
pastor serving as business agent who teaches Bible 
classes and frequently preaches. There are 2 Chinese 
evangelistic workers. The city congregation has 240 
members of whom 30 joined recently. On the south 
bank of the river, where our compound and hospital 
are located, worship is conducted regularly at the 
Nurses' Training School, and a small Sunday School 
is maintained. A neighbouring congregation at Ya Er 
Dang has 40 communicants, and there are also a Sunday 
School and a young people's society. Half of the salary 
of the Chinese pastor is provided from Canadian funds. 
His wife, a seminary graduate, shares in religious educa- 
tion work in Wen Deh Girls' and Gin Yi Boys' Middle 
Schools. These schools and the surrounding area need 

IS 



a missionary. All the out-station work around Chung- 
king has dwindled away. 

Fowling, with 4 Overseas Mission Board mission- 
aries, has 241 church members of whom 65 are new. 5 
Chinese evangelistic workers assist in this field. The 
church was bombed out of existence, but an old hall on 
the compound serves until a new church can be erected. 
The presbytery has 4 points, but only 2 ordained pastors, 
1 lay preacher and a few women workers. 

The neighbouring Presbytery of Chungchow has no 
missionary, and only 3 Chinese evangelistic workers to 
serve 5 points. It has 186 members of whom 25 are 
new. 

A total survey reveals that the membership in the 
area of the Szechwan Synod numbers over 3,000 of whom 
442 were added recently. A much stronger church could 
be developed with adequate leadership. The secretary 
of the mission serves part time as an itinerating evan- 
gelist. But the 16 ordained men, and 1 ordained woman 
together with the limited number of evangelistic mis- 
sionaries in the Synod, are insufficient for the task. 

Another challenging opportunity presents itself 
among the enquiring youth in the student body at the 
university. Some 800 of the 1,726 students are now 
being influenced in Christian study groups and religious 
education classes. There are now 466 Christian students 
in the university. More missionaries, with evangelistic 
zeal are needed to win other Chinese leaders of tomor- 
row for Jesus Christ. We must strengthen the Church 
of Christ in China. 

In addition to the regular ministry of preaching, the 
Church should employ consecrated persons competent 
to give leadership in other vocations. For years we had 
an agricultural missionary in West China. The fruits 
of his labours are still evident. When he retired, no 
one succeeded him in this work. We now have a mis- 
sionary who is a qualified engineer, caring for the 

14 



electrical equipment in our hospitals and other institu- 
tions. There is room for well-trained social workers. 
The home and family life, and the economic standard 
of living must be improved. We saw women and 
children, 1 mother with her baby on her back, hauling 
heavy loads in an effort to augment the meagre family 
income. True Christian leadership should bring many 
reforms to benefit the poor people of China. 

The Canadian Mission Press, in Chengtu, is not 
allowed to do ordinary commercial work, but prints only 
Christian literature. Regular periodicals are issued for 
our own and other churches, including books, magazines, 
pamphlets, tracts, teachers' monthly helps, and lesson 
leaflets for adults and children. Employees number 60, 
two-thirds of whom serve in the Press itself. The staff 
looks forward to a time when this Press might be a sub- 
sidiary of the Christian Literature Society in Shanghai, 
carrying their publication for sale, and also free to do 
necessary printing in our own field. 

The Educational programme in our West China 
mission, except for the university work, suffered greatly 
during the years of war. 

The Woman's Missionary Society supports kinder- 
gartens, child study centre, primary schools, weaving 
school, girls' middle schools, and some of the main- 
tenance and personnel at the university. 

The Overseas Board maintains a Boys' Middle 
School at Chungking, contributes in personnel and 
funds to a Union Middle School at Chengtu, and shares 
greatly in West China Union University. The former 
Boys' Middle School at Tzeliutsing was completely 
destroyed during the war, and has not been replaced. 

The Gin Yi Boys' Middle School at Chungking is 
the only one operated exclusively by our mission, and 
it is sadly in need of assistance. The building needs 
repair and the staff needs a missionary. The proper 
equipment, especially for the science courses, is 

15 



inadequate. A co-operative plan with the Girls' Middle 
School nearby, would reduce necessary expenditures. 
There arc 205 boys of impressionable age in this Gin 
Yi School, and the opportunity afforded to train them 
as Christian leaders should not be neglected. The 
Chinese principal is putting forth a worthy effort, but 
he needs our help. 

The Union Middle School at Chengtu, supported by 
several churches, has a larger number of boys, some of 
whom are affiliating with the Christian Church. The 
academic courses here also leave little time for adequate 
demonstration and laboratory experiments in the field 
of science. We were told that the university finds it 
necessary to begin anew all courses in science, because 
of lack of proper training in the middle schools. This 
condition is typical of most schools in China. Further 
it was noticed that not enough time is given to organized 
group recreation. 

While in Chengtu, we visited the Canadian School 
for children of missionaries, and the Language School 
where missionaries receive instruction in Chinese. 

We were impressed by the scope and quality of the 
work at West China Union University with its student 
body of nearly 1,800. There are over 800 in Arts, 500 
in Science and over 400 in Medicine and Dentistry. 

There is no doubt that this institution holds a very 
important place in the whole Chinese field of education. 
We were led to feel, however, that among the various 
faculties and departments there was much unevenness of 
standard. In the fields of medicine, dentistry and 
science, for instance, the levels seemed quite comparable 
with those of our western universities. Unfortunately, 
the same could not be said for the Faculty of Arts, nor 
of its Department of Education, which gives training to 
teachers, nor of the Theological College which is 
affiliated with the university and undertakes the train- 

16 



ing of pastors and other church workers. It may be 
well just here to recall the recent history of the Depart- 
ment of Education. In 1942 this department was closed 
because of an edict of the government which would not 
permit private institutions to train teachers for Chinese 
schools. At that time the university set up a new depart- 
ment, namely a Department of Rural Reconstruction, 
with the intention that under this department some 
elements of teacher training might be given for work 
in rural schools. The government consented to the 
experimental organization of such a department and it 
has been in operation ever since. In 1946 the govern- 
ment permitted the reopening of the Department of 
Education, and some in the university hoped that it 
might be combined with rural reconstruction, to give 
a very valuable teachers' course. Such a union, how- 
ever, was not brought about, and the two departments 
are working separately. Neither one is accomplishing 
its purpose. Both in personnel and in the content of 
their courses they are very deficient. In our opinion 
they are both very important in relation to our Christian 
objectives. We would, therefore, recommend that when 
our Church finds it possible to supply additional per- 
sonnel to the university, consideration be given to the 
requirements of these departments. 

The criticism contained in a previous paragraph of 
the courses offered in middle schools applies in large 
measure to university offerings as well. At the West 
China Union University the regular courses are arranged 
to suit the needs and aptitudes of men students, 
although, admittedly, many of the best students are 
women. To supplement the regular courses, work is 
now being done with a number of students in Fine Arts. 
The desire is being expressed by both staff and students 
that a department of Fine Arts be authorized. At the 
moment this would involve no additional expense. In 
our opinion it is highly desirable that a Christian 

17 



university should give recognition and encouragement 
to this type of work. 

It is known, of course, that a considerable number 
of members of the university staff are non-Christian. 
This appears unavoidable at the present time. While 
this is true, however, it appears to us that too often 
staff members have been appointed without sufficient 
reference to their religious attitudes, in departments 
where those attitudes are of special importance. 
Obviously it matters greatly whether the teachers of 
history and economics are Christian. In our opinion 
it matters no less, and possibly more, that professors of 
science should have the Christian point of view. Rightly 
or wrongly, the fact is, that students incline to regard 
the science instructor as a purveyor of absolute and 
impartial truth. If he is scornful of, or indifferent to 
the religious aspects of life, that attitude is almost sure 
to be reflected in the attitude of his students. For this 
reason we would urge that our Church should interest 
itself in bringing this point of view effectively to bear 
on those responsible for university appointments. 

At the time of the recent meetings of Synod, a move 
was made to bring about a larger measure of co-operation 
between men and women educationists under the 
mission and also between these educationists and the 
Church. The need for such action was recognized by 
all these groups, and a provisional organization was 
formed with that purpose to be known as the Educa- 
tional Association of the Mission. The membership of 
the association is to consist of: All principals of schools 
under the mission, all foreign missionaries in educa- 
tional work, any teacher in our schools who is a member 
of our Church, any teacher with two years' service in 
our schools who is a Christian. The executive is to 
have as ex-officio members, the chairman and general 
secretary of Synod, and actions of the organization or 
its executive are to be approved by Synod or its executive 

18 



before coming into force. We consider this change of 
relationship to be desirable since, presumably, it will 
bring the schools closer to the Church. 

We point out that The United Church of Canada, 
1 of 5 supporting churches, has recently been con- 
tributing much more than its share of personnel to 
the university staff. This, of course, could not be 
objected to, were it not that too often it has meant the 
withdrawal to Chengtu of men whose services were 
regarded as very necessary to other sections of the field. 
We believe that an effort should be made to secure 
from the other churches concerned a more generous 
co-operation in this regard. 

The Union Theological College at Chengtu main- 
tained by 5 Communions, has 49 students of whom 18 
are women. The college offers 2 courses, 1 a 4-year 
course for graduates of Senior Middle School and the 
other a 2-year course for graduates of Junior Middle 
School. This is the only theological seminary we 
encountered that admits students of such low academic 
standing. There was evidence also of the need of a 
more careful observance of health requirements. The 
regular or senior course leads to the degree of B.Th., 
and an additional year in Arts qualifies a student 
for the B.A. degree of the university. 3 will graduate 
from the regular course, and 11 from the junior course 
this year. Summer and refresher short courses are 
also provided, and these are of real service to the active 
pastors throughout the Synod. There has been some 
dissatisfaction among the students during the past year, 
and we believe a rethinking of the course provided, 
both as to academic and practical work is timely. Our 
branch of the Church has not been very successful in 
providing ordained pastors for the congregations, 
though 80 per cent, of the college graduates find some 
place of service in the Church, usually as lay workers. 
Many of those who study Theology fail to complete 

19 



the requirements for ordination. The Church needs 
pastors and evangelists, and we must strengthen the 
work of Union Theological College. 

The Medical programme in West China in recent 
years calls for centralization of effort at 3 main hospitals— 
Chengtu, Chungking and Tzeliutsing. Dr. Jas. Y. 
Ferguson spent several weeks at each of these points 
evaluating the work and policy. We approve of the 
mission's medical policy in the face of present limitation 
of funds and personnel. Other hospitals, with Chinese 
doctors in charge, will receive helpful oversight and 
occasional assistance from the staff at the larger centres. 
But it is becoming more difficult to render effective 
service in a "one-man hospital". The strengthening of 
the 3 hospitals, with adequate staff and equipment will 
assure opportunity for interns and young graduate 
doctors, and better courses for nurses in training. 

We mention first the hospitals at points other than 
Chengtu. Those in the capital will be described in 
connection with medical education in West China Union 
University. 

Chungking has our second largest hospital with 250 
beds. There are 2 missionary doctors, 8 Chinese doctors, 
24 nurses, 2 of whom are missionaries, 6 laboratory tech- 
nicians, 137 nurses in training, and a missionary business 
manager. 1 wing serves as laboratory, and also accom- 
modates tubercular patients. The Nurses' Training 
School building is overcrowded, and the temporary 
houses for staff may be needing replacement before 
many years. Enlarged kitchen accommodation is needed. 
Some items of equipment should be added, such as 
iron beds, toilet facilities, and deep X-ray therapy 
machine. Several thousand patients are cared for 
annually, and about 7 per cent, of the treatments are 
free of charge. The hospital has a struggle to maintain 
self-supporting status. The City Clinic, with 6 Chinese 
doctors, and a small temporary building with 20 beds, 

20 



is seeking to serve in an area where we had a hospital 
before the war. Funds are being donated by mission 
boards and Canadian Aid to China Fund, toward a 
new building. 

The hospital at Tzeliutsing has 120 beds, 3 doctors, 
1 a missionary, 12 graduate nurses, 2 laboratory tech- 
nicians, 6 other staff members, and 60 nurses in train- 
ing. This is a very busy hospital in the salt-well area. 
The temporary residence for nurses must be replaced, 
and funds have been voted for this project. 

Kiating has a hospital of 65 beds, 3 Chinese doctors, 
1 dentist, 5 graduate nurses, 1 laboratory technician, 6 
ward aides, and 26 coolies. Free treatment was provided 
for 65 inpatients and 325 outpatients last year. Some 
new instruments for surgery are required. 

Fowling hospital directed by a Chinese doctor has 
70 beds, a missionary nurse, 4 graduate nurses, 1 
laboratory technician and 27 nurses in training. A new 
operating table, and a residence for nurses, are needed. 

Junghsien hospital with 60 beds is superintended 
by a Chinese doctor who also serves as pharmacist and 
laboratory technician. He is assisted by a missionary 
nurse, 3 graduate nurses and 6 ward aides. 

The hospital at Luchow with some 20 beds is now 
operated privately by a Chinese doctor. The same 
is true of several small hospitals, and clinics, formerly 
operated by our mission. 

We turn now to Chengtu, where we share in the 
City Hospital, the University Hospital, and the Hospital 
for Lepers, as well as the medical training in the 
university. We cannot do better than include here 
information gleaned from the "Report on Medical 
Services" submitted by the Director of the College of 
Medicine and Dentistry. 

Christians, seeking to alleviate suffering, have 
included medical services in the missionary programme, 
with clinics and hospitals, the training of doctors, nurses 

21 



and dentists, research work, providing medical literature, 
preventive medicine, public health, and health educa- 
tion. In West China we stressed the curative, educa- 
tional, and public health work. Medical education 
began in West China Union University in 1914, a dental 
faculty being added in 1919. Steady growth has resulted 
until today the College of Medicine and Dentistry is 
doing work second to none in China, and better than 
most. 

As an integral part of the West China Union 
University, this college is a union project, but from the 
beginning its very existence has depended upon the 
Canadian contribution. The number of Canadians on 
the staff has exceeded the appointees of all the other 
missions combined. The United Church of Canada has 
recognized its special interest in this college by con- 
tributing the money for the original east and west wings 
of the college building. 

The College of Medicine and Dentistry consists of 
two faculties; one of medicine and one of dentistry. In 
addition, it sponsors a college grade department of 
nursing and maintains a course for hospital laboratory 
technicians. The work of the Jenchi School of Nursing 
is supported by the hospital from income, with small 
grants from other sources. Its clinical work is carried on 
in 6 units, 2 of which are mission hospitals inside the 
city. These are both leased to the university for a 
very nominal sum of money. They are the Canadian 
Mission Hospital and American Methodist Hospital. 
The other 4 units are the University Hospital, the 
Dental Clinic, the Tuberculosis Sanatorium and the 
Leper Hospital. In June, 1947, the Canadian Mission 
Dental Hospital withdrew from its university relation- 
ship and is now completely under mission management. 

The enrolment for the present academic year is 286 
students in medicine, 125 in dentistry, 23 in nursing 
and 21 in hospital technology, making a total of 455 

22 



for the whole college. Of these, women students number 
114 in medicine, 45 in dentistry, 23 in nursing and 9 
in hospital technology or approximately 40 per cent, of 
the total exclusive of nursing. 

The teaching and administrative staff in medicine 
numbers 46 supported by the university or missions. 
Of these 10 are missionaries including 2 missionary 
wives who receive no extra salary. There is an honorary 
staff of 6 professors, none of whom receives salary. One 
is an American surgeon, Dr. C. H. Arnold, who is con- 
tributing 2 years of his time. Others are members of 
government institutions who for the most part receive 
small honoraria to cover cost of travel to and from the 
university or its hospitals. In addition there are 9 
technicians connected with the medical departments and 
3 public health nurses. The so-called medical depart- 
ments, include the preclinical departments common to 
medicine and dentistry and also responsible for some 
of the teaching in nursing and hospital technology. In 
addition to all of the above, 12 members of our medical 
departments are at present doing postgraduate work 
abroad, and one new appointee to the college is expected 
to return to Chengtu this year. 

The dental teaching staff consists of 22 dentists of 
whom 3 are missionaries. In addition about 8 are 
engaged in postgraduate work abroad. There are 3 
dental technicians and administrative and nursing staff 
of 7 persons; this includes the administration of the 
dental clinic. 

The teaching staff of the College Course of Nursing 
consists of only 3 nurses with university contracts. How- 
ever, assistance is given by the Jenchi School of Nursing 
staff and by the Medical staff. 

The School of Hospital Technology staff is included 
in those already mentioned. 

In addition to this teaching staff, we have the 
hospital house staff of 43 residents and assistant resi- 

23 



dents and 27 medical and 10 dental interns, who are 
still undergraduates. The graduate nursing staff of 
the entire hospital set-up includes approximately 65 
nurses of whom 3 are missionary nurses, 2 of these 
being on short term contracts which means that they do 
not have very much Chinese. 

Now en route to Chengtu are 2 New Zealand nurses; 
1 medical and 1 dental, supplied by the New Zealand 
relief organizations. The hospital is responsible for 
their maintenance and travel from the coast. In addi- 
tion the various units of the hospital have the usual 
business staff. These and also the servant staff are 
considerably larger than would be the case in Canada 
where hospitals are much mechanized. 

Up to 1947 the West China Union University had 
graduated 371 medical doctors and 135 dentists and 
52 hospital technologists. The first class of nurses has 
not yet graduated, since college grade nursing only 
began a year ago. Our graduates are distributed more 
or less equally in 3 types of work— mission hospitals, 
government hospitals, and private practice. In general, 
more of the older graduates are now in private practice 
and a higher percentage of the younger ones in institu- 
tional work. - 

The student body comes from every province in 
China with approximately 50 per cent, from Szechwan; 
about 40 per cent, are women. About 35 per cent, of 
the students of the College of Medicine and Dentistry 
are Christian; a higher percentage than either of the 
other colleges. Almost the entire staff is at least nomin- 
ally Christian. 

We have available for teaching, about 475 beds of 
which 250 are in the University Hospital. The Cana- 
dian Mission Hospital in the city is running far below 
capacity because of the transfer of the centre of our work 
from the Canadian Mission Hospital area to the univer- 
sity campus. When these are available we can easily 

24 



include an extra 100 beds in that hospital. At 
present, we list it as a 50-bed hospital. We have 
95 beds for eye, ear, nose and throat patients in the 
Methodist Mission Hospital; 40 beds in the Tuber- 
culosis Sanatorium and 40 in the Leper Hospital. 
We have 3 outpatient clinics. During the year 1946 
to 1947 our hospitals saw 134,939 outpatients, of 
whom 58,292 were first visits and 76,647 were return 
visits. We cared for 4,687 inpatients for a total of 
103,687 days. Aproximately 5 per cent, of our out- 
patient work is free and about 10 per cent, of our 
inpatient work is free. In the hospital there were 
1,458 major operations and 3,913 minor operations. 
There were 445 obstetrical deliveries. 

During the past 2 years extensive alterations and 
additions have been made in the college and hospital 
plant. The largest addition to the plant was the 
transfer of the American Baptist Middle School 
dormitory to the School of Nursing. A small addi- 
tional building was added to the X-ray department 
to house a deep therapy unit and extensive renovation 
was necessary in the laundry, third class wards, staff 
ward and hospital grounds to accommodate the in- 
creased number of patients. Many changes have also 
been made in the college building due to the departure 
of our wartime guests and the transfer of all pre-clinical 
departments into the one building. 

Running water has been provided in the hospital 
and centrally generated steam is now available for 
sterilizing instruments. A furnace has been installed 
and before too long we hope to have the operating 
rooms and a number of the first class wards heated. 
Similarly in the library and administrative sections of 
the college building, steam heating is now being in- 
stalled. The above are a few of the additions made 
during the past year or two but many other improve- 
ments are still necessary. A wall and proper gateway 

25 



must be built up for the hospital outpatient department. 
The laundry should be mechanized as soon as possible. 
The Hospital Chapel should be built and properly 
equipped so as to enable programmes of various sorts 
to be broadcast to all patients and every bed should 
be provided with ear-phones. We are in serious need 
of another staff residence to accommodate graduate 
nurses and other women staff of the hospital. This 
would enable the hospital to utilize for first-class 
patients, the many wards now occupied by staff. A 
small morgue, autopsy room with attached chapel is 
another serious need. Many items of equipment might 
also be named as necessary for the efficient maintenance 
of our work. 

Financing our hospitals has been a difficult problem. 
Were it not for such secular organizations as the various 
Red Cross Societies working in China through the 
International Relief Committee, it would not have been 
possible for our hospitals to have remained open. Now 
that the war is over we can hardly expect relief societies 
to continue doing as much as they did during the war. 
The Church should get behind its work or be prepared 
for its complete secularizing and commercialization, 
The process of making the rich pay for the poor can 
be carried on only within limits. When carried to the 
extent of creating resentment the final result is one of 
harm for the whole Christian programme. 



NORTH HONAN 

The north Honan mission was started in 1888, and a 
strong church with the spirit of self-support, was 
developed through the years. It became a part of the 
Church of Christ in China, under the Synod of North 
Honan. This field was evacuated during the Japanese 
war, renewed following the war, but recently evacuated 

26 



again because of the present civil strife. Any decision 
to withdraw from an area is made on the field by 
mission council and not in the home office. Missionaries 
know the situation, and because Honan was a battle- 
ground and the presence of westerners made their 
Chinese friends suspect, it was deemed wise to withdraw. 

The only part of the field that continued to function 
so far as missionaries were concerned, was Cheeloo 
University at Tsinan in Shantung Province. We visited 
this city, as well as other centres in North China which 
could be reached only by air travel. Cheeloo has a 
splendid compound, good university buildings, and 
associated hospital. The student body of over 500 was 
enrolled in Arts, Science, Economics, Rural Economy 
and Medicine. The library and museum, with records 
of Chinese history and archaeology, formed an interest- 
ing feature. 

Threats against the City of Tsinan have caused the 
authorities to consider moving at least the medical 
department of the university that the students might 
complete their courses of study. Doctors are needed 
in China, and this action, if deemed to be wisdom, may 
occur before this report is printed and placed in your 
hands. 

Meantime Evangelistic work is carried on among the 
students, with Christian study groups, and chapel 
services. Many of the students are Christian. 

The Educational record of the Cheeloo University 
has been noteworthy. Of the 500 students now in 
attendance, 160 are women. They live in 3 residence 
buildings, and are under the kindly supervision of a 
Dean of Women. There are 203 enrolled in medical 
and pre-medical courses. 

The Theological Seminary under a Chinese princi- 
pal, has 15 students of whom one is a woman. There 
are two permanent staff members, and several part- 
time assistants, both missionary and Chinese. Grants 

27 



from bursary funds assist students who have been cut 
off from sources of support in Communist-held territory. 
While in North China, we visited the Language School 
in Peiping. 

The Medical programme of the university makes 
use of the old and new hospitals inside the south suburb 
city gate. The old building is used for obstetrics, 
gynecology, operating rooms, supply and X-ray units. 
The new building serves for medical work, pediatrics 
and outpatients* department. In the last named, 400 
persons are treated daily. The hospital has a total of 
120 beds. We supply for university and hospital staff 
a man doctor, a woman doctor, a nurse, a teacher in 
rural economy now on furlough, and in normal times 
a teacher in theology. There is a graduate nursing 
course given in the Science Department of the uni- 
versity, so the hospital has no training school for nurses. 
Ward aides serve the hospital. 

The hospitals at Weihwei and Changte continue to 
function in a small way under Chinese leadership. 

The above description of our work in North China 
reminds us of the difficulty of promoting a complete 
Christian programme in Communist territory. This 
has been the experience of Protestant and Roman 
Catholic missions alike. Missionaries who formerly 
served in Honan are in West China, South China, and 
Hankow where there is a School of Hospital Tech- 
nology, but they hope to renew their former tasks at 
the earliest opportunity. Some are ready to join a team 
to witness in Communist-held territory, when such can 
be arranged. 

The struggle between the Nanking regime and the 
Communists is political and economic as well as mili- 
tary. China needs many reforms— land, transportation, 
education, health and finance, to mention only a few. 
The promises of the' Communist leaders as to agrarian 
reform make a strong appeal to the poor tenant farmers 

28 



and they are taking over more and more territory in 
the north. But thousands of people have fled from 
areas under Communist control, becoming refugees in 
the overcrowded cities. If the government did more to 
further the implementation of needed reforms for the 
benefit of the common people, it would be much more 
popular. The Christian Church must continue to 
advocate the abundant life for all classes and conditions 
of men. Improved economic status, a decent standard 
of living, opportunity for health, education, and right 
social environment, are essential. But man does not 
live by bread alone. Man is a spiritual being, and any 
complete programme to serve China's needs must have 
to do with body, mind and spirit. We believe the Gospel 
of Christ, in word and deed, with faith and good works, 
is the final answer to the needs of men everywhere. We 
trust that the time will soon come when "evacuated" 
areas will again be open to representatives of Jesus 
Christ, for a full ministry of preaching, teaching and 
healing. 

KOREA 

Our mission in North Korea, established in 1893, 
resulted in the development of a vital, growing witness- 
ing church. Reports indicate that in spite of the diffi- 
culties faced by Christians in this Russian-controlled 
area, the Korean believers reveal earnestness and fidelity 
to Christian principles. Over 2,000,000 people have fled 
to the area south of the 38th parallel, and of these, 
some 60,000 are Christian. The refugee problem that 
results is serious. Many thousands are living in temp- 
orary shelters around Seoul. Food is available, but 
clothing is scarce. We saw refugees wearing relief cloth- 
ing sent from Canada. The Canadian Mission house 
in Seoul is a centre of distribution. The Koreans are 
deeply appreciative of our help in this regard. 

29 



Our Evangelistic staff in Korea consists of two 
families at present. Missionaries are not permitted to 
enter the northern zone, and our workers, a skeleton 
staff, are rendering splendid service in the several union 
universities, in co-operative Christian agencies such as 
Bible Society, Christian Literature Society, and National 
Christian Council as well as assisting in Church life 
and work in the Seoul area. In several avenues of 
service, they are in touch with refugees from our mission 
in North Korea. 

Among the refugees, are many girls and boys 
separated from their families, and cut off from financial 
support. These young people, mostly students, need 
hostel supervision that they may be nurtured in the 
Christian faith and life. A Korean pastor is needed to 
care for their spiritual welfare. 

As a group, the Christian refugees are church-minded. 
Forty new congregations have been organized in Seoul, 
worshipping in former Shinto shrine buildings, and 
existing congregations also have absorbed many of the 
newcomers. And they really attend church. Overflow 
congregations greeted us on all occasions in Seoul. 
Missionaries under our Board, though not assigned to 
any one congregation, are constantly in demand for 
preaching services. 

They also serve as teachers of religion in Chosun 
Christian University, and in the Chosun Theological 
Seminary which is conducted by the Korean Church. 
The university has recently started theological training 
with a class of 35. An additional 43 take courses in 
religious education. The Seminary in the city has 280 
students, about 70 being in the Women's Department. 
40 of these young people are from our former mission 
field. 15 women are among the 208 students pursuing 
the regular course in theology. Senior Middle or High 
School graduation is necessary for admission. The 

30 



spirit of the Board, the staff and the student body, is 
excellent. A dormitory for men is an urgent need. 

Religious services and instruction in Ewha Women's 
University are furthered by Canadian missionaries 
under the Woman's Missionary Society. Ewha has an 
enrolment of 1,200. 

The refugee Christians from North Korea, especially 
from our old field, urged us to promote certain projects 
with and through them as a group. We believe we 
are well advised in this new geographical area in Korea, 
to assist projects promoted by the Korean Church, 
rather than start new ventures of our own. We recognize 
the need for a Rural Life Training Centre, recently 
begun by the Presbytery under the General Assembly of 
the Church. This provides for a 3 months' training 
course, and 9 months in village work each year, on the 
part of evangelistic and rural life teams of workers. 
The programme includes Evangelism, Bible, Farming, 
and Home and Family Life. 50 persons, including men 
and women, are enrolled in the first class. 

The plan of the General Assembly, in Korea, to set 
up a Church and Mission Joint Committee was studied. 
We approve of the plan in principle, but believe sub- 
committees, with personnel experienced in the respec- 
tive fields, should give advice in women's, educational, 
and medical work. 

The Christian Literature Society has a Korean 
secretary, and one of our men is associate secretary. Our 
grant is well used in this work of providing Christian 
literature. 

The Bible Society appreciates the assistance of one 
of our men. This work is basic to missionary endeavour 
and deserves our grant. 

The National Christian Council was reorganized 
over a year ago with 14 affiliated churches, missions and 
kindred organizations. Our support in this cooperative 
work is a real service to Christ in Korea. 

31 



The Mission and the Korean Church ask for the 
return of all available former missionaries, and some 
new families. We feel that we should not attempt to 
build up a large mission in South Korea comparable to 
our former field in the North. But insofar as we are 
able, we should share in the work of the Korean Church 
in this area where opportunity beckons. 

The Educational work in which we share has been 
mentioned in part in connection with religious instruc- 
tion given by our missionaries at the college and semin- 
ary level, but other items regarding these and secondary 
school institutions should be reported. 

The Chosun Christian University, like other Korean 
colleges, is now renewing its life after long Japanese 
domination. Buildings and equipment are still below 
standard but the university has great possibilities. One- 
half of the staff of 60, and one-third of the student 
body of nearly 1,000, are Christian. The head of the 
science department is a strong Christian leader in the 
community. 

The Kyunggi Middle School for boys is reputed to 
be the best school of its grade in Korea. It is well-organ- 
ized, well-equipped, and pervaded by an excellent school 
spirit. Here, as elsewhere in the Orient, we noticed 
that insufficient time was given to serious laboratory 
work. Of the large enrolment of 1,550 this state school 
has 300 Christian boys. Formal religious instruction 
is not permitted, but one of our missionaries teaches 
English to the senior classes, and has a wholesome 
Christian influence among the students. 

We found some duplication of effort in the educa- 
tional programme at the co-operative institutions in 
Seoul. Classes were started this year at Chosun Christian 
University for women who would normally have 
attended at Ewha. In Ewha University, already over- 
crowded, classes were organized for pre-medical students. 
Severance Medical University is better equipped for 

32 



the medical programme. A course in theology was begun 
at Chosun Christian University when the larger Chosun 
Theological Seminary under the Church served in this 
field. A survey by a committee of the Foreign Missions 
Conference led to a recommendation that the 3 universi- 
ties be united. Local opinion has not developed so 
far, but closer co-operation should be possible. Ewha, 
with 58 students in pre-medical courses, should be 
affiliated with a better hospital than the old East Gate 
Hospital which is sadly run down. Also additional staff 
and equipment would be needed at Ewha. Chosun 
has not sufficient space nor equipment for the science 
courses, and is not in a position to provide a medical 
school. Dr. J. Y. Ferguson urges co-operation between 
Ewha and Severance. The Severance Medical Uni- 
versity needs more buildings and equipment, but is 
better prepared to train doctors than are the other 
universities mentioned. 

In the Medical field, jointly with the Woman's Mis- 
sionary Society, we have a woman doctor and a nurse 
in Korea. They serve in Ewha giving pre-medical 
instruction, at the East Gate Hospital, and share in the 
development of Severance. The doctor is for a time, 
assisting in the reorganization of a state hospital in 
Seoul. With limited facilities, these missionaries, 
together with their colleagues, are rendering valuable 
aid in the health programme among our Korean friends. 



JAPAN 

Our mission in Japan dates from 1873, the year in 
which feudalism was abolished, and when the edict 
boards proscribing Christianity were removed. 

Japan has proven to be one of the most interesting 
studies of our tour, and this land of 80,000,000 people 
presents an opportunity to us now. She is awakening 

33 



from the false dreams of the war-path. The sorrow 
of defeat is upon her, and in penitence she realizes that 
her economy must be built on a different foundation. 

First, let us indicate the course of our travels in 
this country. We visited Tokyo, Yokohama, Kobe, 
Osaka, Kyoto, Kanazawa, Toyama, Nagano, Obuse, 
Suzaka, Nakano, Kofu, and consulted with others con- 
cerning Shizuoka. Most of these are cities of our earlier 
mission work, but include a few rural centres, and a 
work of the Canadian Anglicans at Obuse. 

Tokyo is the capital of Japan, with about 6,000,000 
people. It lies on the east side of the Island of Honshu 
at the head of Tokyo Bay. It is the centre of much 
of Japan's life— trade, commerce, education and govern- 
ment (Supreme Command for Allied Powers). The 
Sumida river divides the city. The residence of the 
Emperor, the several universities, public buildings that 
survived the bombing, and Buddhist Temples, as well 
as the only Confucian Temple in Japan, are of interest. 
Here we visited with military authorities, Canadian 
Legation, Japanese Diet Ministers, Church Moderator 
and other leaders, attended the war trials, various 
churches, kindergartens, colleges, and School of Social 
Work. Beyond the city we studied the Rural Training 
Centre and the Hydroponic Farm. 

Yokohama, with 3,000,000 people, is the main sea- 
port for the capital city. Here we studied the opera- 
tion of L.A.R.A. and Church World Service Relief. A 
few miles from Yokohama we visited a recently estab- 
lished Social Centre, catering to the needs of children, 
young people and adults. 

Kobe is one of the 2 largest sea ports in Japan. This 
city with a 500,000 population faces the Inland Sea 
and a semi-circle of mountains add to the scenery. The 
former boys' dormitory of the Canadian Academy, in 
fine shape as a holiday resort for soldiers, adorns the 
hillside and is known as Gloucester House. A few miles 

34 



distant is Kwansei Gakuin University in which we have 
a large interest. The city streets in Kobe are pitted as 
the result of bombing, and wrecked buildings scar the 
landscape. 

Osaka, with one and a half millions, is a centre of 
manufacturing and commerce and transportation. It 
stands at the mouth of the Yodo River as it flows into 
Osaka Bay. Various canals through the city are used 
as shipping lanes. Fine silk, lacquer and porcelain are 
displayed in the shops. Sights include Castle, Museum, 
Zoological Gardens, Parks and Buddhist Shrines. 

Kyoto is one of the 6 largest cities in Japan. A 
one-time capital, it has nearly 1,000,000 people. This 
"classical city" escaped the war bombing. The Imperial 
University with 8,000 students and Doshisha Christian 
University with additional courses of religious philo- 
sophy and theology has over 7,000 in the student body. 
A Buddhist Temple displays ropes of human hair, from 
devout women used in its construction. The Palace, 
the Park, Mount Hiei, Hozu Rapids and Lake Biwa are 
among the sights of the area. 

Kanazawa, with 200,000 population, is 1 of 2 large 
cities on the northwest coast of Japan. It is a centre 
for textile manufacturing. It is the capital of its pre- 
fecture, an educational centre, and famous for its kutani 
china ware. Keuroku Park, with associated tales of 
feudal days is interesting and beautiful. 

Toyama, a city of 90,000, under the shadow of the 
"Japanese Alps", a neighbouring range of snowcapped 
mountains, was demolished by incendiary bombs. Only 
5 buildings survived. Today it is a large city of mush- 
room growth, but evidence of the Japanese spirit of 
facing the future with determination to overcome 
disaster. Here we were entertained by the Vice-Governor 
of the Prefecture. Incidentally, the men of our party 
experienced the interesting routine of the hospitality of 

35 



a Japanese inn. Similar experiences were met on later 
occasions. 

Nagano, with 80,000 souls, is overcoming the wounds 
of war. The activity around the Zenkoji Temple 
indicates interest in Buddhism. Though not a uni- 
versity centre, Nagano has Commercial and Middle 
Schools and a large Normal School. The chief industry 
is the manufacture and distribution of silk. ■ 

Obuse is a rural village, where nestled among the 
hills we visited the Tubercular Sanitarium operated 
by our friends of the Church of England in Canada. 
This institution is under the care of the recently con- 
secrated Bishop P. S. C. Powles, and an able staff of 
doctors and nurses. Many more sanitaria are needed 
to check this disease, which is so prevalent in the East. 

Suka and Nakano are rural villages also in the 
Nagano Prefecture, where we had the privilege of seeing 
pastors and church buildings, and learning something 
of the rural problems. 

Kofu is the capital city of a Prefecture with 800,000 
population. The severity of the bombing was felt by 
our Christian institutions. The church and the school 
were destroyed. The former has been rebuilt, and the 
latter is partially reconstructed. Gratitude for relief 
parcels was expressed by the local pastor and by the 
missionary teachers who are supported by- the Woman's 
Missionary Society. 

In all of these centres we were in touch with leaders 
of government, business, education, and religion. This 
visitation enabled us to witness the work, the needs and 
the opportunities of missionary endeavour. It also 
prepared us for the later meetings with Japanese Church 
leaders, in Tokyo, and for the discussion gatherings of 
our missionaries in the capital city. 

The Evangelistic effort of the Kyodan, or Church of 
Christ in Japan, is worthy of support. Our represent- 
atives in Japan serve as a part of this Church. It is well 

36 



that we should realize the extent of this Communion. 
By a study of her statistics, and through conversation 
with the Moderator, Rev. Mr. Kanzaki, we learn the 
following facts: The Church has 18 districts, 1,500 
pastoral charges of which some are weak and vacant; 
1,800 congregations, 1,800 ministers of whom some are 
retired and some in other work, 1,118 charges settled 
with pastors, 250,000 persons under pastoral care, 
180,000 communicant members with 20,000 new mem- 
bers by adult baptism last year, mostly gained through 
church and Sunday School. Many congregations are 
independent or self-supporting; others partly indepen- 
dent, and others with local preachers not yet ordained. 
The problem of providing ministers and paying them 
adequately is a serious concern at present. Salaries are 
too low, and many pastors have to seek part time 
employment at other occupations. Gift parcels through 
Church World Service and aid of friends in educating 
children of pastors is deeply appreciated. 

Definite evangelistic effort is promoted, led by Dr. 
Kagawa. He uses cards to secure names and addresses 
for local follow-up work. Also two full-time evangelists 
assist with follow-up work. Women evangelists are 
needed in larger numbers. 

An encouraging feature of the Church in Japan is 
its attraction for the educated classes of people, and the 
young people between 20 and 30 years of age. Large 
numbers of these are seen in the average service of 
worship. There are 700 Christian Kindergartens in 
Japan, only a dozen Christian Primary Schools, and 80 
Middle or High Schools. There are 92 schools with 
Christian education programmes above the primary 
grades, 12 are centres of higher learning, that is of 
college grade, and 6 of these have university status. 

The Kyodan operates at present through a Council 
of Co-operation concerning problems of Church and 
educational work. The organization, and its functions 

37 



arc known to our Boards and we need not here enlarge 
upon it. The smooth operation of the Kyodan will take 
time, and the advice and counsel of missionaries is 
still regarded as a valuable lead in solving many 
problems. 

The Church suffered greatly from the war. There 
were 503 churches of the Kyodan destroyed. 32 have 
been restored. 35 Quonset huts are in use as temporary 
churches, and school buildings are serving as places of 
worship. There is much to be done in restoring church 
buildings. But more important is the leadership. 

We share in 2 Theological Seminaries, 1 at Tokyo, 
the other at Kwansei Gakuin University near Kobe. 
The entrance requirements at both Seminaries demand 
Senior Middle School graduation. The Japan Church 
hopes the time will come when even higher standards 
will be reached. The influence of the Christian pro- 
fessors and chaplains among the student bodies of 
Middle Schools and Universities is well worthwhile. 
Religious instruction, Christian inspiration and guid- 
ance are needed in the new Japan. The candidates are 
increasing, but the lack of adequate salary is a serious 
deterrent. The government estimates as a minimum 
need for Japanese living 1,000 yen per adult per month. 
A pastor's salary averages 1,200 yen per month. He 
cannot thus support a family. 

A phase of combined education and religious instruc- 
tion that is coming to the fore at the present time is 
the training of leaders for rural life. The Rural Service 
and Training Centre a few miles from Tokyo with 
recently acquired property, buildings and farmland, 
will provide courses in agriculture, home life, rural 
problems, and some theology, thus training young 
people to serve as lay evangelists and rural life leaders 
in communities where they work and earn their living 
without special church support. This type of leader- 
ship should have a helpful place in rural life. The 

38 



Director of this Rural Centre is one of our United 
Church missionaries. 

At this point we would say a word about the oppor- 
tunity and challenge of Japan as a place of missionary 
effort now. The people are ready for kindly sympathetic 
Christian leadership. The total result of her warfare 
leaves Japan with thousands of homeless children amid 
the ruins of her cities. Millions of repatriated and 
unwelcome citizens meet with difficulties in their new 
environment. Social problems, and social diseases, are 
all too prevalent. The Japanese are humble today. 
They regret following their war lords, and seek a new 
way of life. The ''friendly occupation forces" are 
welcome, and also the helpful missionaries from other 
lands. Already the people are free to speak without 
fear of a gestapo. But rival voices are heard. Com- 
munism— Democracy— Christianity— all are being watched 
and studied by the Japanese. The principles of Jesus 
Christ are needed. It is a privilege to bring to a sobered 
Japanese people the story of the Risen Saviour of man- 
kind, and to lead them to their rightful place in the 
human family under one God and Father. 

In this disillusioned land there are specific features 
that challenge the Church in her programme of recon- 
struction. The preaching of the Good News must go 
on. National leaders must be provided. Young people 
must be won and held for Christ and His Church. The 
student group, as well as rural youth, are ready for 
wise counselling. Wholesome literature— books, maga- 
zines, pamphlets, daily press articles, and Sunday School 
papers— must be provided. Modern methods of audio- 
visual education will add interest and produce results. 

We have a social centre in the city of Tokyo, but 
Rural Training and Social Centres are needed. The 
best of teachers and experienced social workers are 
required to carry on this work. The salvaging of per- 
sonalities warped by war experiences or bad post-war 

39 



environment calls for a social service programme of a 
redemptive nature. Clinical consultation and sympa- 
thetic Christian friendship for the underprivileged and 
forgotten can reclaim a prospective criminal for* an 
honest and upright life. Libraries, reading rooms, play- 
grounds with supervised games, are being developed. 
A new Social Work Training School is conducted in 
Tokyo under the Social Welfare Association, and aided 
by the government department on Public Welfare. 

Home and family life, as well as public health pro- 
grammes, must receive greater attention. Ideals, the 
finer aspects of Christian living, as well as better 
economic status must be encouraged. The Christian 
Church is thus challenged to promote a programme of 
"total evangelism". 

We serve with the Kyodan, and not in our old area 
alone. But it was helpful to see the need as we 
journeyed over our former territory. The war has left 
its mark, so far as our property is concerned. We have 
no houses for missionaries at Hamamatsu, Fukui, Toya- 
ma, Matsumoto, Kofu and Tokyo, other than one pre- 
fabricated house recently erected in the capital city. We 
have some accommodation at Shizuoka, Kanazawa, 
Nagano and at Kwansei Gakuin University. 

The missionaries under the Overseas Board are now 
limited to 5 families. 2 reside in Tokyo, 1 serving 
"Licensed Agencies for Relief in Asia", distributing 
food and clothing to the needy, the other doing rural 
centre work. 3 families are now at Kwansei Gakuin 
University. Requests for new missionaries are con- 
sidered by the Kyodan, or the Council on Co-operation, 
but a minimum share for The United Church of Canada 
would require many more families and single workers. 
This necessary staff cannot be added at once, but should 
be provided over a period of years. A beginning will 
be made with the arrival of one new family this year. 
The harvest is plentiful and the labourers are few. 

40 



Perhaps we should say the workers are available, but 
funds are scarce. The door of evangelistic opportunity 
is wide open in Japan. God opens the door; let us 
enter in His strength, endeavouring to do great things 
for Him, but always expecting great things of Him. 

The Educational work in which our Board shares, 
is confined to the Rural Training Centre described 
above, the theological colleges also previously men- 
tioned, and the extensive programme of Kwansei Gakuin 
University. 

The Woman's Board supports a number of kinder- 
gartens, primary schools, girls' middle schools, and 
shares in the Women's University at Tokyo. 

The Canadian Academy for children of missionaries 
was destroyed by bombs, and such children now attend 
the American School in Tokyo. 

Before w T e outline our work at Kwansei Gakuin, 
near Kobe, it is well to mention Japanese education in 
general. 

By a recent enactment of the Ministry of Education, 
important revisions have been made in the Japanese 
educational programme. Heretofore, in most areas, the 
set-up has been on the basis 6-5-3, 6 years Primary 
School, 5 years Middle School or High School, and 3 
years College. Schooling was compulsory and free to 
the end of the 6th year. By the new requirements the 
basis has been made 6-3-3-4, the primary grades to be 
followed by 3 years junior and 3 years senior high 
and a college course of 4 years. Compulsory attendance 
and free schooling will henceforth apply to the end 
of the 9th year, that is, to the end of Junior High 
School. 

As will be understood, this revision is just now 
causing much worry and confusion for administrators 
of Colleges and Secondary Schools. Not only have they 
the problems of devising methods for dealing with those 
students already engaged with courses to be altered, 

41 



but at both levels they must arrange to determine 
admissions for a much larger number of students. At 
both levels an extra year has been added, and in the 
Junior High School the compulsory attendance feature 
will increase the numbers still further. Not only extra 
rooms, but extra teachers are required, and in this 
country, as elsewhere the teacher supply is already below 
the existing demand. Some schools are going to try 
the "double-shift" plan, but it is admitted that such a 
procedure will not improve the educational situation. 
The number of those seeking admission to High Schools 
and Colleges is already far greater than can be received— 
sometimes in as great a ratio as 4 to 1— and hence it 
seems doubtful whether so great an addition to the 
educational programme of the country should have been 
so abruptly made. 

From what has been said, it will be understood that 
for some time there will be considerable continuing 
demand for admission to Christian, as well as govern- 
ment schools. When, however, facilities can be pro- 
vided by the government to accommodate, without fee, 
all who qualify for Junior High School work, it may 
become difficult to operate private schools where fees 
will still be necessary, since at present no idea of sub- 
sidies for private schools is entertained. In view of the 
facts that the new Constitution forbids religious teach- 
ing in any government school, the closing of Christian 
schools would involve the exclusion of Christian teach- 
ing from a very important field of Christian influence. 
One factor that would operate to maintain attendance 
at Christian schools would be the desire of students to 
insure more or less automatic admission from High 
School to Christian Universities in the same administra- 
tive framework without the necessity of running the 
gauntlet of examinations which are imposed on outside 
candidates. 

We spent 2 days at Kwansei Gakuin, and were 

42 



fortunately able to attend the graduation ceremonies 
in March. At that time diplomas and certificates were 
given to 853 graduates, classified as follows: Middle 
School 144, College Preparatory 148, Junior College 
(Science) 138; Junior College (Commerce) 116, Uni- 
versity Course— Law 37, Literature 23, Economics 116, 
Commerce 35. Reports were very encouraging, especi- 
ally considering the deterioration suffered in plant and 
equipment during and because of the war. A good 
deal of repair work has already been done, but an 
estimated $25,000 or $30,000 U.S. will be necessary to 
complete the restoration. 

The university is adjusting itself to the new govern- 
ment programme and so the enrolment anticipated for 
next term will be very high, probably exceeding 4,000. 
The recent accreditation ruling authorizes 3 university 
departments, at Kwansei Gakuin, namely, law, literature 
and economics. Here, as in practically all private 
institutions in Japan, provision for the study of science 
exists only at lower levels. No Christian university has 
a department of science. Japanese professors of science 
are obtainable only from among the graduates of 
government universities. What has just been said 
applies to medical science even more than to some other 
branches, for scarcely any work is given that could be 
regarded as definitely pre-medical. 

With this in mind, the President of Kwansei Gakuin 
is very anxious to undertake the addition of a Depart- 
ment of Medical Science. He would acquire for the 
university a large piece of available land, about 25 miles 
from Kobe and there would erect a large hospital and 
medical school. He would also open on the same loca- 
tion a Department of Agriculture with the idea that the 
products of experimental work done by this department 
would help to maintain the other. We did not find 
much enthusiasm for this project among members of 
his staff and we could not develop much ourselves. We 

43 



felt that while there was undoubted need for these 
additions, the first and immediate task is to complete 
the rehabilitation of those departments which are 
already functioning and recognized. In all courses now 
being given at Kwansei Gakuin the stated purpose is, 
first to lay broad foundations of liberal culture, and 
only in the final years to attempt any real specialization. 
The hope of the authorities is that within a short time, 
they may be giving graduate courses of 2 additional 
years in every department, so as to carry that special- 
ization to a level which would appropriately be marked 
by the award of a Master's degree in that field. 

Extra-curricular activities in Japanese institutions 
appear to be very limited in number, and in scope. 
This fact, however, is easily explainable in a country 
that has so recently emerged from a devastating war, 
and where equipment of any sort is very difficult to 
obtain. At several of the institutions visited we were 
shown schedules of such activities which it was proposed 
to organize as soon as circumstances would permit. 

A proposal is now being advanced for the establish- 
ment of an international "Christian University ,, in 
Japan. We had several conversations with men and 
women— both Japanese and foreign— who are actively 
interested in the scheme. Following these conversa- 
tions, and after admittedly slight opportunity of study- 
ing the proposals, we have formed at least tentatively, 
opinion as follows: that the university, if established, 
should concern itself mainly with the provision of post- 
graduate courses, avoiding the duplication of work 
already being satisfactorily done in other Christian insti- 
tutions; that under-graduate, as well as post-graduate, 
courses in science be provided; that emphasis be given 
to courses in medicine, nursing, social work and teacher 
training; that affiliation with the university should be 
granted to any Christian institution in Japan, irrespec- 
tive of location, which has achieved minimum standards 

44 



laid down by the university; that in this university, 
which is to be the capstone of a Christian educational 
programme it should be required that every staff 
member, without exception, be a professing and practis- 
ing Christian; and that the appropriate location for 
such a university is in or near Tokyo, the capital city 
of Japan. 

The establishment of a strong and evangelical 
Church is the ultimate purpose of all our work. At 
the same time, we are convinced that the Christian 
school is one of the most effective agencies we can use 
to make the Church strong and effective. 

In Japan the school has always been important, and 
never more so than today. The Confucian tradition 
which places the scholar in the highest rank of society 
has made the position of the teacher one of unique 
respect and influence. From the earliest beginnings of 
Christian work in Japan the opportunity which the 
Christian school offers has been recognized. If efficient 
and high in its standard, it has given dignity and strength 
to the Church and gained a hearing for the Gospel 
message, quite out of proportion to the financial 
expenditure involved. 

The arguments for Christian education in Japan 
have double strength in the post-war situation in which 
we find ourselves today. There are many reasons, only 
two of which we mention. First, Japan's defeat in the 
war is a fact which has convinced the Japanese people 
that our Christian countries have something which they 
do not, and which they very much desire. As Prince 
Higashi-kuni said; "You have something we do not 
have; I believe it is your Christian faith. " Secondly, 
it is not in mere externals that this wistfulness finds 
expression. There is a consciousness of spiritual need 
which we have never seen before in the same degree, 
on the part of the young people of this land. They 
are almost insatiable in their desire to hear about how 

45 



we live, and what we think and what our life is like, 
and how they can find a solution— which they think 
of us as having— for their problems. While the Govern- 
ment University still has the power and the prestige, 
young people are increasingly turning to the Christian 
school for the satisfaction they know their own system 
of education cannot give them. 

Just how long this situation will last, we do not 
know. It will be influenced for good or bad, no doubt, 
by the political events which take place in the next 
few years; the Peace Treaty which will either bring 
new hope or blank despair; the degree of economic 
assistance they are able to receive in their efforts toward 
rehabilitation and an independent economic existence; 
the example which the Western powers set for them in 
the international tug-of-war which is now on— all these 
and other things will have influence, either to strengthen 
or weaken our Christian impact. But the fact is that 
JUST NOW we have an unparalleled opportunity 
through our Christian schools to influence the future 
leaders of new Japan to the Christian faith. It is of 
the utmost importance that we should make full use 
of this opportunity. 

The United ' Church of Canada does not yet con- 
tribute to medical services or medical education in 
Japan. 

All that we have said in this report on Japan is 
confirmed by the opinion of Dr. Kagawa, especially as 
to the need of missionaries for evangelistic, rural, 
educational and social work. The afternoon spent with 
Kagawa was in itself an inspiration. He is a worthy 
example of Christian faith and perseverance. Amid 
sufferings, trials and persecutions, he has witnessed to 
the saving power of the Master. As a social worker in 
the slums he shared his bed with a diseased man, and 
ever since he has suffered with a disease of the eyes. 
When I took his picture, he could not face the sun. 

46 



In spite of handicaps, he never slackened in Christian 
service. He spent years in organizing co-operatives to 
help his countrymen. Lately he has directed his energy 
toward the field of evangelism. He assured us that 
"Now is the time to capture Japan for Christ." 



CONCLUSION 

This brief survey of 6 of the 8 overseas mission fields 
under the auspices of The United Church of Canada, 
emphasizes the fact that our effort has not been in vain. 
In each of these lands a Christian community has 
been established, and an indigenous Church has 
emerged. The younger Churches in India, China, 
Korea and Japan, have lately taken over greater 
responsibility for the Christian programme of worship 
and evangelism, and in some instances for educational 
and medical services as well. 

The Orient presents many open doors. The people 
have open minds and open hearts. Through the Mis- 
sionary and Maintenance Fund of our Church, let us 
go in and possess the land. The spirit of Christ is 
needed in Canada, but it cannot be kept in Canada 
unless we share it with the needy of the world. His 
spirit is essential in solving the problems of "one world" 
under one God and Father of all mankind. 

In the light of the deputation's findings, a "Policy 
Report" has been prepared for General Council. It 
will be found in the 1948 Year Book of the Church. 
There also you will find the names and locations of 
our missionaries; and salient facts about our other 2 
fields in Africa and Trinidad. 



47